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Protective Measures with Insulation Monitoring

Application of Unearthed IT Power Systems in Industry, Mining, Railways, Marine/ Oil and Electric/Rail Vehicles

Wolfgang Hofheinz

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Wolfgang Hofheinz, Protective Measures with Insulation Monitoring (2006), VDE Verlag, Berlin, ISBN: 9783800741069

Getrackt seit 05/2018

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Beschreibung / Abstract

The incremental application of unearthed electrical supply systems (IT systems), requires a careful selection of suitable protective measures, e.g. insulation monitoring devices (IMDs). The combination of IT systems with insulation monitoring is an innovative protective technique, with the great advantages of more efficient operational safety and reliability, better fire protection, accident prevention and more. The book gives a detailed description of the unearthed IT system and its application fields, in industry, mining, railway, marine/oil and in electric vehicles. The various measuring techniques involving insulation monitoring devices are discussed, with an in-depth description of the respective international standards series IEC 60364 "Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 1: Fundamental principles, assessment of general characteristics, definitions"; Part 4-41: "Protection for safety – Protection against electric shock"; Part 6: "Verification" and, IEC 60479 "Effects of current on human beings and livestock – Part 1: General aspects", amongst others.

Leseprobe

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • Protective Measures with Insulation Monitoring
  • Preface to the Third International Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Contents
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Protection of Electrical Installations and Equipment
  • 2.1 Common Aspects for Installations and Equipment
  • 2.2 Elements of Protective Measures
  • 2.3 Protective Measures
  • 2.4 Co-Ordination of Electrical Equipment and of Protective Provisions Within an Electrical Installation
  • 2.5 Special Operating and Servicing Conditions
  • 2.6 Protective Measures Implementation by Protective Provisions
  • 3 Types of Distribution Systems According to IEC 60364-1
  • 3.1 Types of System Earthing
  • 3.2 TN System
  • 3.2.1 Single-Source Systems
  • 3.3 TT System
  • 3.4 IT System
  • 4 Electrical Installations and Protective Measures According to IEC 60364-4-41
  • 4.1 Automatic Disconnection of Supply
  • 4.2 Requirements for Fault Protection
  • 4.3 TN System
  • 4.4 TT System
  • 4.5 IT System
  • 4.6 Additional Protective Measures
  • 4.7 Protective Measure: Double or Reinforced Insulation
  • 4.8 Protective Measure: Electrical Separation
  • 4.9 Protective Measure: Extra-Low-Voltage Provided by SELV and PELV
  • 4.10 Additional Protection
  • 4.11 Appendices of IEC 60364-4-41
  • 5 Unearthed IT Systems
  • 5.1 Example of IT Systems with Equipotential Bonding and Insulation Monitoring
  • 5.2 Supplementary Protective Equipotential Bonding in the IT System
  • 5.3 Testing of IT Systems According to IEC 60364-6
  • 5.4 Protection Against Overcurrent in All Distribution Systems
  • 5.5 Connection of Insulation Monitoring Devices (IMDs)
  • 6 Special Features and Advantages of IT Systems
  • 6.1 Higher Operating Safety
  • 6.2 Improving Fire Safety
  • 6.3 Improving Accident Prevention with Limited Touch Voltages
  • 6.4 Higher Permissible Earthing Resistance
  • 6.5 Information Advantage with IT Systems
  • 7 Applications of IT Systems
  • 7.1 IT Systems in the Mining Industry
  • 7.2 IT Systems with Insulation Monitoring on Board Ships
  • 7.3 IT Systems with Insulation Monitoring in Railway Application
  • 7.4 IT Systems in Electric Vehicles
  • 8 Insulation Resistance
  • 8.1 Early Safety Regulations in Germany (1883)
  • 8.2 Insulation Resistance – a Complex Matter
  • 8.3 Definitions
  • 8.4 Influence Quantities
  • 8.5 Insulation Measurement and Monitoring
  • 8.6 Complete Monitoring in IT Systems
  • 9 Effects of Shock Current on Humans
  • 9.1 The Effects of Current on Human Beings and Livestock
  • 9.2 Electro-pathological realisations
  • 9.3 Protective Measures Against Shock Current
  • 9.4 Accidents Involving Electrical Current
  • 10 International Standards for Insulation Monitoring Devices
  • 10.1 Insulation Monitoring Devices (IMD) for Monitoring a. c. Systems in Accordance with IEC 61557-8
  • 10.2 Insulation Monitoring Devices (IMD) in Accordance with IEC 60364-5-53
  • 10.3 Insulation Monitoring Devices (IMD) in Accordance with the American ASTM Standards
  • 10.4 Difference between Insulation Monitoring Devices and Residual Current Monitors in Accordance with IEC 62020
  • 10.5 Equipment for Insulation Fault Location in IT Systems
  • 11 Technical Implementation of Insulation Monitoring Devices And Earth Fault Monitors
  • 11.1 Insulation Monitoring of a. c. and Three-Phase IT Systems
  • 11.2 AC Systems with Directly Connected Rectifiers or Thyristors
  • 11.3 DC Systems
  • 11.4 Measuring Principles for the General Application in a. c. and d. c. IT Systems
  • 11.5 Insulation-Fault-Location System in a. c. and d. c. IT Systems
  • 11.6 Summary
  • 12 Response Values of Insulation Monitoring Devices (IMDs)
  • 13 Physics of the IT System
  • 13.1 Leakage Currents in the IT System
  • 13.2 Voltage Ratio in the a. c. IT Systems
  • 13.3 Overvoltage in a. c. and Three-Phase a. c. IT Systems
  • 13.4 IT Systems and the Second Fault
  • 14 Standard References to IT Systems
  • 14.1 IEC 60364-4-41:2005-12, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 4-41: Protection for safety – Protection against electric shock
  • 14.2 IEC 60364-4-43:2005-07, 64/1557/CDV, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 4-43: Protection for safety – Protection against overcurrent
  • 14.3 IEC 60364-5-53, Ed. 4/CDV:2005-11, IEC 64/1516/CDV, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 5-53: Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Protection, isolation, switching, control and monitoring
  • 14.4 IEC 60364-6:2005, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 6: Verification
  • 14.5 IEC 60364-7-710:2002-11, Electrical installations of buildings – Part 7-710: Requirements for special installations or locations – Medical locations
  • 14.6 IEC 60092-507 Electrical installations in ships – Part 507: Small vessels
  • 15 Definitions for Insulation Monitoring
  • 15.1 Definitions in accordance with IEC 61557-8:2006
  • 16 Abbreviations
  • 17 List of Referenced IEC Standards
  • 18 Index

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